Motorcycle safety helmet may not guarantee your survival if you get into an accident, but increases the odds significantly. This rider seems to have suffered severe trauma to the top of his head, just where there normally would be a rigid plate of a helmet. If I were to guess, I’d say that had he wore a helmet, his brain would not be oozing out of his eye sockets.
No info on where this accident took place, but it’s obviously somewhere in South East Asia, possibly Laos or Cambodia. Motorcycles outnumber other means of transportation there and despite high death rates on the road, few people bother with safety helmets.